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In this article, we will focus on the estimation of age-at-death, and in particular on the latest efforts toward improving a well-established family of methods using Artificial Intelligence, those involving the analysis of pubic symphysis following the principles of Todd’s method [1]. In these methods, an age phase (i.e. an age interval) is assigned to […]

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If we focus on sex estimation, the research done to date by Panacea Cooperative Research, in collaboration with the University of Granada (UGR), has focused on two main problems: Traditionally, sex estimation is performed by means of numerical/tabular data obtained from manual measurement of the bones of interest. However, the success of a set of […]

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Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology and its methods to identify the living and the dead, especially in the framework of a legal investigation of human remains (1). Reconstructing the biological profile may help law enforcement, medical examiners, and medicolegal death investigators narrow down the list of potentially unidentified persons by automatically excluding […]

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Comparative radiography is a forensic ID technique based on the comparison of skeletal structures in ante-mortem and postmortem X-ray images. The most commonly employed skeletal structures are located in the skull, chest, and thoracic areas.

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Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) is probably the most challenging SFI method. It involves the superimposition of an image of a skull with a number of ante-mortem face images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence.

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Craniofacial landmarks provide the base for forensic ID methods like facial comparison but their location is a manual and time-consuming task, whose results and accuracy are largely defined by the experience of the expert placing them.

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Skeleton·ID has the ability of creating a skull-face overlay (SFO) automatically, provided four or more corresponding landmarks have been located on both the photograph and the skull. This article provides an overview of the technology behind this feature. 

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Performing craniofacial superimposition involves superimposing a 3D model of a skull over an ante-mortem photo showing the face of a certain person. The analyst carrying out the task aims to have the skull overlaying the face of the subject by matching its position, pose and size.