Research

On this page you will find articles on R&D research.

Publications

Using Artificial Intelligence and the analysis of the pubic symphysis to estimate age-at-death

Biological Profile

Published on November 23, 2022

In this article, we will focus on the estimation of age-at-death, and in particular on the latest efforts toward improving a well-established family of methods using Artificial Intelligence, those involving the analysis of pubic symphysis following the principles of Todd’s method [1]. In these methods, an age phase (i.e. an age interval) is assigned to […]

Publications

Sex estimation from photographs of the ilium and humerus using Deep Learning techniques

Biological Profile

Published on November 23, 2022

Traditionally, sex estimation is performed by means of numerical/tabular data obtained from manual measurement of the bones of interest. However, the success of a set of Artificial Intelligence techniques, known as Deep Learning (DL) [1], in image analysis problems (mainly through convolutional networks) invites the use of such techniques in the estimation of the biological […]

Introductions

A quick introduction to Biological Profile Estimation

Biological Profile

Published on October 24, 2022

Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology and its methods to identify the living and the dead, especially in the framework of a legal investigation of human remains (1). Reconstructing the biological profile may help law enforcement, medical examiners, and medicolegal death investigators narrow down the list of potentially unidentified persons by automatically excluding […]

Introductions

A quick introduction to Comparative Radiography

Comparative Radiography

Published on July 4, 2022

Comparative radiography is a forensic ID technique based on the comparison of skeletal structures in ante-mortem and postmortem X-ray images. The most commonly employed skeletal structures are located in the skull, chest, and thoracic areas.

Introductions

A quick introduction to Craniofacial Superimposition

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on April 12, 2022

Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) is probably the most challenging SFI method. It involves the superimposition of an image of a skull with a number of ante-mortem face images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence.

Publications

Automatic landmark location on human skulls

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on September 13, 2021

Craniofacial landmarks provide the base for forensic ID methods like facial comparison but their location is a manual and time-consuming task, whose results and accuracy are largely defined by the experience of the expert placing them.

Publications

Posest-SFO: automatic skull-face overlay

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on September 16, 2020

Skeleton·ID has the ability of creating a skull-face overlay (SFO) automatically, provided four or more corresponding landmarks have been located on both the photograph and the skull. This article provides an overview of the technology behind this feature. 

Introductions

Understanding camera parameters

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on November 29, 2019

Performing craniofacial superimposition involves superimposing a 3D model of a skull over an ante-mortem photo showing the face of a certain person. The analyst carrying out the task aims to have the skull overlaying the face of the subject by matching its position, pose and size.